A long-time vegan, Vesanto Melina is highly aware that several myths surround plant-based diets. Two common misconceptions are that it’s hard for vegans—who eschew dairy, eggs, honey, and other animal products—to get enough protein, and that tofu is unhealthy for men to eat.
According to the registered dietitian and coauthor of such books as Becoming Vegan, Becoming Raw, and Raising Vegetarian Children, another fiction is that cooking vegan food is difficult and takes a long time.
“Now, it is true that you do need to learn some new skills sometimes,” Melina, who lives in Langley, told the Georgia Straight in a Kitsilano coffee shop. “Because if what you were used to cooking was one way, you have to learn a few new aisles to go down in the supermarket and pick up different ingredients, and then what to do with them.”
With her latest cookbook, coauthored by Courtenay-based chef Joseph Forest, Melina is out to show everyone that homemade vegan food can be “healthy, delicious, and easy”. The second edition of Cooking Vegetarian, an update of the original 1996 book, was published last October in Canada. It was also released last month in the U.S. under the more precise title Cooking Vegan.
Spanning 274 pages, Cooking Vegetarian opens with informative chapters about ingredients and nutrients. There’s a vegan food guide outlining the recommended servings per day of vegetables (five or more), legumes (four or more), nuts and seeds (one or more), fruits (four or more), and grains (three or more).
Twelve menus each set out a day’s worth of meals using recipes in the book and meet the recommended intake for protein, fat, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals. There are raw vegan, gluten-free Japanese, and holiday menus, for example.
The recipe chapters cover breakfasts and beverages; dips, spreads, sandwiches, and snacks; salads; dressings; soups; entrées; side dishes; sauces and gravies; and sweet treats. Each recipe—including the cashew cheese lasagna and raw mango strawberry pie—comes with a nutritional analysis that lists the calories and nutrients in a serving, along with the percentage of calories derived from protein, fat, and carbohydrates.
Melina holds a master of science degree in nutrition from the University of Toronto and taught nutrition as a lecturer at UBC. She coauthored the 2003 joint position paper of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada on vegetarian diets.
“Well-planned vegan and other types of vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence,” the paper states. “Vegetarian diets offer a number of nutritional benefits, including lower levels of saturated fat, cholesterol, and animal protein as well as higher levels of carbohydrates, fiber, magnesium, potassium, folate, and antioxidants such as vitamins C and E and phytochemicals.”
According to Melina, vegans often have an optimal body-mass index. She said this translates into lower rates of cardiovascular disease, colorectal and prostate cancers, and diabetes among people who eat a plant-based diet.
Tofu is an “excellent” protein source, as are legumes, nuts, and seeds, the dietitian noted. Low-oxalate greens—such as kale, broccoli, bok choy, and napa cabbage—are good sources of calcium.
“Those have [up to] twice the calcium availability of cow’s milk or of tofu, which are both at about 31, 32 percent,” Melina said. “Those are 40 to 60 percent, those greens. So they’ve got lots of calcium in them, and we get lots out of them. It’s well absorbed.”
Melina mentioned that other calcium sources include blackstrap molasses and fortified plant milks. Almonds also have calcium, while cashews contain zinc, and walnuts offer omega-3 fatty acids. In general, she encourages everyone to eat whole plant foods rather than processed foods.
Melina says that although the proportion of the population that’s vegetarian appears to be holding steady, she believes that the number of vegans within that category is growing.
“Many people who are vegetarian are thinking of being vegan,” Melina said. “What has also changed is the awareness of vegan. The major corporations, like Kraft, are considering that vegan eating is really a big trend, and they need to address it.”