The woman known as "Amanat" in the Indian media has died in Mount Elizabeth Hospital in Singapore.
The 23-year-old student was gang-raped on a New Delhi bus nearly two weeks ago, sparking riots and demonstrations across India.
Jaya Bachchan, the wife of Bollywood icon Amitabh Bachchan, raised the case in the Indian parliament, where she's an elected representative.
Six men are facing charges.
In the past 24 hours, the hospital revealed that the woman had taken a turn for the worse, possibly indicating severe organ failure.
The death of Amanat (not her real name) comes shortly after a 17-year-old girl committed suicide after being gang-raped in Patiala, India.