Canada's biggest cities continued to rank higher than the top American cities in Mercer's annual global quality of living survey.
Vancouver held on to its fifth place position in an evaluation of 230 cities and continued to be the top North American city.
Vienna, Zurich, Auckland, and Munich all scored higher than Vancouver and European cities dominated the top 10.
Meanwhile, Toronto took the 15th spot, Ottawa came in 17th, and Montreal 23rd—all higher than the top U.S. city: San Francisco at number 28.
Calgary came in 32nd place.
This year's survey factored in personal safety for the first time. All five Canadian cities which were included in the survey came in at 16th place while no U.S. cities made the top 50 in this category.
Singapore is Asia's highest ranking city, at 26th place.
The lowest scoring cities were Damascus (229) and Baghdad, which came in last place.
The top 10 cities are:
1. Vienna, Austria
2. Zurich, Switzerland
3. Auckland, New Zealand
4. Munich, Germany
5. Vancouver, Canada
6. Dusseldorf, Germany
7. Frankfurt, Germany
8. Geneva, Switzerland
9. Copenhagen, Denmark
10. Sydney, Australia
Meanwhile, the 10 least desirable cities are:
221. Conakry, Guinea
222. Kinshasa, Congo, Democratic Republic of
223. Brazzaville, Congo, Republic of
224. Damascus, Syria
225. N'Djamena, Chad
226. Khartoum, Sudan
227. Port-au-Prince, Haiti
228. Sana'a, Yemen
229. Bangui, Central African Republic
230. Baghdad, Iraq