Phil Fontaine’s statement to the pope on residential schools apology

National Chief Phil Fontaine of the Assembly of First Nations delivered this statement today (April 29) to Pope Benedict XVI at the Vatican. Today, the pope told a delegation of aboriginal Canadians he is sorry for the abuse that took place at Canadian residential schools run by the Catholic Church.

April 29, 2009

Most Holy Father:

Today is a joyous day for the human spirit. It is a momentous day for our people and for our country, Canada.

It is my highest honor as the National Chief of the Assembly of First Nations to represent our people in your presence in this awe-inspiring house of worship and grace. Most Holy Father, thank you for receiving us.

The Catholic Church has always played a significant role in the history of our peoples. Priests and nuns were some of the first Europeans to arrive on our shores.

Our ancestors taught the newcomers how to survive the cold, how to live off the land and how to navigate the vast continent. They taught them diverse and beautiful languages, including those of the Mig’maq, Anishinabe, Cree and Dene. In return, missionaries built schools, churches and hospitals – not just in cities but also in remote areas of the country where our people lived.

They acted as intermediaries in treaty negotiations and interpretation and often expressed their serious reservations about the federal government’s intentions in the implementation of the treaties.

Many embraced our languages with enthusiasm, wrote them down and created dictionaries, bibles and books of prayers that we still use to this day.

The Catholics recognized the deep spirituality of our peoples and introduced a faith to which many indigenous people devoutly adhere.

What brings us here today, however, was the failure those many years ago, by Canada and religious authorities, to recognize and respect those who did not wish to change – those who wished to be different.

For reasons rooted in imperfections of the human condition, those at the highest levels of authority in Canada came to believe that our indigenous cultures, languages and our ways of worship were not worth keeping and should be eradicated.

To implement this belief, the Canadian government adopted the policy of forcibly removing indigenous children from their families and communities and placing them in Indian Residential Schools under the care and control of members of Catholic entities and other churches.

The Catholic Church entities thus became part of a tragic plan of assimilation that was not only doomed to fail but destined to leave a disastrous legacy in its wake. Many children died in these schools, alone, confused and bereft. Countless others were physically, emotionally and sexually abused. The fabric of family life for thousands of our people, young and old, was shattered.

We suffered needlessly and tragically. So much was lost for no good reason.

The Catholic Church, too, was harmed by the residential school experience. Many good and decent men and women of faith were tainted and reviled because of the evil acts of some. The hundreds of years of good will and hard work by courageous and committed missionaries were undermined by the misguided policy Catholic priests and nuns found themselves enforcing. The reputation of the Catholic Church was impoverished. This, too, was tragic.

But today is a new day. We are here at the Vatican in your presence Most Holy Father, to change this sad history.

Our struggle has reached a decisive moment. While the past must never be forgotten, our destiny lies in building a future with enduring foundations, the cornerstone of which must be forgiveness.

Our elders teach us that we have choices in life. We can build up, or we can tear down. We can forgive with generosity of spirit and with the hand of friendship, or we can seek sustenance from bitterness and vengeance.

We come here today Most Holy Father, with the spirit and lessons of our ancestors and elders in mind.

Reconciliation and friendship is what we seek. The time to re-build a better and brighter future together is upon us. The moment to bridge the gap has come.

Healing the wounds of the residential school legacy will take years, perhaps even decades of work. But today marks an important milestone on the road out of darkness.

On June 11, 2008, I spoke to the Canadian Parliament in response to the apology of the Prime Minister and leaders of the Opposition. On that wonderful occasion I said, “This day testifies to nothing less than the achievement of the impossible.”

Most Holy Father, I say the same to you today. The achievement of the impossible can only occur when there is hope. We are here because our people never lost hope. And today, together with you, we have merged hope with history.

We will never forget the visit of His Holiness, Pope John Paul II when he came to the Canadian North to visit our people, after bad weather prevented his first attempt. He celebrated mass in our house - a giant teepee - and he prayed with the scent of sweet grass and the sound of beating drums in the air.

The reverence and respect he showed for our culture gave us the hope and strength we needed to pursue our goals, including those that have brought us here today. The co-existence of our unique spiritual values was evident on that day and set a hallmark for renewed respect.

We have learned over the many years of our struggle that none of us acting alone can achieve success like the events of today. So many have worked so very hard over the weeks, months, through many decades and generations to bring the residential school problem to a close. They deserve our deepest and most heartfelt thanks. Our endless gratitude is owed to those brave, fearless survivors who never lived to see this day, but whose contributions to its achievement will never be forgotten.

We offer you, Most Holy Father, our hand in friendship, reconciliation and yes, hope. Hope that we can work together to shape a new Canada for our people - a Canada where racism and discrimination will no longer exist, where the debilitating poverty that plagues us will be eradicated forever, and where our languages and cultures will once again flourish.

Much has been achieved in our struggle for equality and much remains to be done. But now we face the future with the confidence that never again should any Canadian, whoever they are and whoever their ancestors may have been, are treated with disrespect and disregard for their humanity.

Most Holy Father, you have reinforced our belief in justice. You have strengthened our confidence in the nobility of the human soul. You have added to the sum of dignity in the world.

Thank you, Merci, Meegwetch.

Phil Fontaine
National Chief



George Rice

Apr 30, 2009 at 3:34pm

He does not represent Indigenous people. He represents the "Illegal Indian Act" chiefs.


May 3, 2009 at 11:50am

So how much does this translate into for each native? "debilitating poverty that plagues us..." Get rid of the oligarchy and share the billions poured in every year.


May 6, 2009 at 9:37am

I am not a first nations woman, but it sounds like the Pope gave the typical "we never knew these criminal types were running the schools" story. This is not just about the heinous sexual abuse that was tolerated or overlooked, or the beatings and neglect to the point of malnutrition (there are mass graves, probably measles outbreaks). The thing the "Holy Father" would not think to apologize for is the purpose of the schools: "to take the Indian out of the child". This was the reason that the Canadian government and the Catholic (and other) Church ran the schools. Missionary schools in the 3rd world are now run more benevolently.

kyetta fontaine

May 7, 2009 at 12:25pm

this is my uncle Phil he rocks YEAHHHH


May 9, 2009 at 12:32pm

Who paid for this little junket anyway?

Raffaela & Destiney

Jul 29, 2009 at 7:03am

I am one that did not know but an one that opens her eyes to what has happened and still dont know much . As a crisis counselor at a local women's shelter can see the damage done to the nation on a daily basis.. When I came to this country 43 years ago no one handed me a list of government wrong doings. The media was not like today and my Inglish very poor. I struggled to make it in this country to in my little work to make it better. In all my confusion as a new comer I realize now I missed a lot of what was going on and feel like a fool.But in all my dailystruggles I remember I was searching for the Indian person ,the natives of this country and it took me a while to recognise that I couldnt because they did not have a voice. I was happy to start recognizing the Anishnabec person in the street as it is important to me to recognize the Italian person when I visit Italy. It was then that the story sterted to come to me and it was not pleasant .Until then I thought it was only the newcomers that were not treated faire and the right term today we did not use in the past , it was abuse.Today I am struggling to learn more and more about anything that can enrich me of culture , dayliving and traditions not only for me but for my Anishnabec daughter who, as Phil said, needs to fill those jobs in the future and perhaps be a member of parlament. I appreciated Mr. Fontain's speech as he higlighted the HOPE and the FUTURE for our young without minimising the pain that the goverment caused in the past and poverty of the people and the snowballing negative results making it impossible for the young to survive.. Thank-you Mr .Phil for giving my daughter hope for a brighter future for herself and her people . While you were delivering the speech she was attentive and speachless and I told her this is the man you could become one day he did it so can you she is only 12 years old and yes I aspire great things for her but most of all pride in herself YOU MANAGED TO GIVE HER THAT TO MY DESTINEY TODAY .From my part You gave me strenght. I will try my best that your words wont fall on arid terrain as the children need us to smooth some of the path for them so they can become LEADERS one day.

Raffaela & Destiney

Jul 29, 2009 at 7:10am

he is a great man, a true humanitarian and speaks the truth in every directions please before commenting listen to the whole speech

Angela Cloude

Aug 15, 2009 at 4:23am

ok so when a man speaks the truth, then can he help the wrong doings by the government in bringing back my older brother back to Canada? Back in 1974 the gov'nt apprehended Ritchard Carlton from my mother and adopted him out to a lady who in turn sold him to an american couple in the united states. My mother did not sign any adoption papers wat so ever and to this day the adoptive parents agree that it was an illelgal adoption.